Home

Beta carotene can be found in Quizlet

Nature's Best Beta Carotene - Potent & Natural Antioxidan

  1. Find & Order beta-Carotene from certified Suppliers with immediate availabilities. Join the Nº1 B2B online marketplace for chemicals in Europe and start ordering now
  2. Get Hold Of Thousands Of Health And Beauty Products All With The Click Of A Button. Plus Free Delivery On 6000 Products Over £1
  3. A. The amount of vita
  4. Protein can be found in a. meat and nuts b. raw vegetables c. citrus d. oils and butter. beta-carotene can be found in a. meat and nuts b. dairy products c. yellow and orange raw vegetables Quizlet Live. Quizlet Learn. Diagrams. Flashcards. Mobile. Help. Sign up. Help Center. Honor Code

beta-Carotene Suppliers Online - Request a Price Quot

A) Consuming excess dietary beta-carotene can cause skin discoloration. B) Beta-carotene is the only carotenoid that functions as an antioxidant. C) Cooking foods that contain dietary carotenoids enhances their absorption. D) Fruits and vegetables can be rich sources of dietary carotenoids Match. Gravity. which of the following Dairy servings is equal to 1 cup of milk. Click card to see definition . Tap card to see definition . 2 ounces of processed cheese. Click again to see term . Tap again to see term . one tablespoon of peanut butter is equivalent to how many ounces of meat fish or protein PLAY. If a supplement contains 20,000 IU of beta-carotene approximately how many ug RAE does it provide? If you make a sandwich with half a ounce of liverwurst (containing 641 ug of retinol) and 1/4 cup of shredded carrots (containing 2760 ug of beta carotene) how many ug RAE does the sandwich contain? Nice work

A. The RDA for vitamin E is given in alpha tocopherol equivalents. B. Vitamin E is a water-soluble vitamin. C. A well-planned experiment by Kobayashi demonstrated that vitamin E would improve VO2 max and increase aerobic endurance in well trained athletes at sea level. D. It cannot be stored in the body. A The rice is known as Golden rice, it is orange because it contains beta-carotene. Its purpose is that beta-carotene can be cleaved to form vitamin A, thus it is meant to prevent vitamin A deficiency in populations that consume rice as a staple food. There is so much debate because the rice has been genetically modified A deficiency of this is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin D. Tocopherols and Tocotrienols. Vitamin E. Phylloquinones, Menaquinones, and Menadione. A deficiency of this is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin K. This vitamin is an exception due to it is water soluble and fat soluble and can be stored in the body. Vitamin B12 Beta carotene is a plant pigment that gives red, orange, and yellow vegetables their vibrant color. Beta carotene is considered a provitamin A carotenoid, meaning that the body can convert it into.

Brands: Solgar, OptiBac, Nature's Aid, Gavisco

Malibu SPF2 Bronzing Butter With Beta Carotene 300m

In its natural form, beta carotene can be found in strawberries, cantaloupe, broccoli, squash, sweet potatoes, carrots, etc.Beta Carotene is believed to act as an antioxidant and an immune system booster. Other members of the antioxidant carotenoid family include cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein, and lycopene 7. Dandelion Greens 59 mcg per 1 gram. Not all foods that are high in beta-carotene can be found in your local supermarket or health food store. Dandelion greens, for example, are a prime example of a nutritious, carotenoid-rich food that you won't be able to find in grocery stores (and yes, dandelion greens are edible, provided you pick them from places that haven't been sprayed with chemicals!) Beta-carotene is a type of substance called a carotenoid. Carotenoids give plants such as carrots, sweet potatoes, and apricots their reddish-violet colors. Beta-carotene is a provitamin. This means it's used by your body to make vitamin A. Provitamin A is only found in plants One study of 29,000 male smokers found an 18% increase in lung cancer in the group receiving 20 mg of beta-carotene a day for 5 to 8 years. Another study of 18,000 people found 28% more lung cancers in people with a history of smoking and/or asbestos exposure Carotenoids are pigments in plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. These pigments produce the bright yellow, red, and orange colors in plants, vegetables, and fruits. Carotenoids act as a.

This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. For a reader-friendly overview of Vitamin A, see our consumer fact sheet on Vitamin A.. Introduction. Vitamin A is the name of a group of fat-soluble retinoids, including retinol, retinal, and retinyl esters [].Vitamin A is involved in immune function, vision, reproduction, and cellular communication [1,4,5] Beta-carotene is most abundant in bright orange, red and yellow fruits and vegetables. Sweet potatoes and carrots are among the richest food sources, containing approximately 920 mcg and 810 mcg per serving, respectively. Spinach, kale and other leafy green vegetables also contain carotenoids, including beta-carotene Function. Sources. Vitamin A (and its precursor*, beta-carotene) *A precursor is converted by the body to the vitamin. Needed for vision, healthy skin and mucous membranes, bone and tooth growth, immune system health. Vitamin A from animal sources (retinol): fortified milk, cheese, cream, butter, fortified margarine, eggs, liver Nutrient Search: Foods highest in Beta Carotene . Better Choices for Healthy Weight Loss The Better Choices approach predicts that foods closer to the top of this list are more filling and more nutritious per calorie than foods farther down the list, and therefore are better for healthy-weight-loss diets. This prediction is based on the nutrient content of these foods, but does not take into. Which food contains preformed vitamin A quizlet? Foods derived from animal foods such as fish oils, eggs,and butter provide the preformed vitamin A. The Preformed vitamin A is stored in the liver. Beta-carotene (provitamin A) ; is known as a precursor of vitamin A. This is thoroughly answered here

Beta-Carotene And Carotenoids In plants, vitamin A only exists in its precursor form. Beta-carotene, the most abundant of these carotenoid precursors, has the highest vitamin A activity. - 12 micrograms of beta carotene from food supplies the equivalent of 1 microgram of retinol in the body Beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids found in fruits and vegetables don't pose the same vitamin A toxicity risk. These compounds are water-soluble and are easily eliminated from the body, so vitamin A toxicity from vegetarian food sources is rare. Beta-carotene supplements, however, may have serious risks for smokers

Vitamin K. Vitamin K is found in coconut oil. In 100 grams of coconut oil, 0.5 micrograms of vitamin K is found. Vitamin K helps make proteins for healthy bones and blood clotting. According to the Harvard School of Public Health, in a study reported in Nurses' Health Study, women who get at least 110 micrograms of vitamin K are 30 percent less. Foods High in Beta Carotene. Your mother may have told you how good carrots are for you -- and she was right. The orange color of carrots is mainly due to a carotenoid pigment called beta-carotene, which can be converted into vitamin A in your body. Because vitamin A has a role in the visual cycle of your eyes, night. I was surprised at how complicated this one got. Turns out that there are two kinds of vitamin A: carotenoids (including beta-carotene) which is found in fruits and vegetables and is converted into vitamin A by your body; and preformed, (retinoid form) that is found in meats and fortified foods - which essentially means it's already been converted by something else Beta-carotene doesn't seem to be toxic in large doses. But high doses over a long time can lead to carotenemia. Which food is a good source of the vitamin A precursor beta carotene quizlet? Among this group, gamma (γ)-tocopherol is the most common form found in the North American diet, while alpha (α)-tocopherol is the second-most. Top Quality, 100% UK Made & Tested. Free P&P On All Orders Over £15

The Women's Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study found no beneficial effects of vitamin C, vitamin E, or beta-carotene supplements on cardiovascular events (heart attack, stroke, or death from cardiovascular diseases) or the likelihood of developing diabetes or cancer in more than 8,000 female health professionals, aged 40 years or older, who. They can be stored in animal tissues and are found at relatively low levels in animal-based foods. In the body, beta-carotene is used to make vitamin A, which is required by the retina to detect light and convert it into electrical signals. Beta-carotene itself is not found in the eye Here's what they found. The researchers analyzed results from seven large randomized trials of vitamin E, alone or in combination with other antioxidants, and eight of beta carotene. The doses of vitamin E ranged from 50-800 international units (IU); for beta carotene, the doses were 15-50 milligrams (mg). Overall, 81,788 patients were. Fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K —are stored in the body for long periods of time, and pose a greater risk for toxicity than water-soluble vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamins are only needed in small amounts. Beta carotene is an important antioxidant that the body converts to Vitamin A,and it is found in a variety of fruits and vegetables

Nutrition Ch 12, 13, 14 Flashcards Quizle

Beta-carotene is a carotenoid. Carotenoids are naturally occurring pigments found in plants, and are largely responsible for the vibrant colors of some fruits and vegetables. Beta-carotene, for example, is responsible for giving carrots their orange color. Once ingested, beta-carotene is either converted into vitamin A (retinol), which the body. The most common type of pro-vitamin A is beta-carotene, a carotenoid that produces dark pigments in plant foods. Beta-carotene can be found in these brightly colored foods: Cantaloup Golden rice is a variety of rice (Oryza sativa) produced through genetic engineering to biosynthesize beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, in the edible parts of rice. It is intended to produce a fortified food to be grown and consumed in areas with a shortage of dietary vitamin A, a deficiency which each year is estimated to kill 670,000 children under the age of 5 and cause an additional.

Study 25 Terms chapter 23 and 32 Flashcards Quizle

are metabolized in the body to vitamin A. Among the carotenoids, beta-carotene, a retinol dimer consisting of two linked retinol molecules, has the most significant provitamin A activity. Approximately 12 micrograms (µg) of dietary beta-carotene can provide the equivalent of 1 µg of retinol The main function of vitamin K is: to help activate proteins that help clot the blood . Where is Vitamin K produced in the body? Vitamin K comes in two forms. The first type is known as vitamin K-1 or phylloquinone and can be found in plants, such as spinach and kale. The second is known as vitamin K-2 or menaquinone and is found in the body.

However, this RDA is also equivalent to 6,000 IU of beta-carotene from supplements, 18,000 IU of beta-carotene from food, or 36,000 IU of alpha-carotene or beta-cryptoxanthin from food. So a mixed diet containing 900 mcg retinol activity equivalents (RAE) provides between 3,000 and 36,000 IU of vitamin A, depending on the foods consumed. Table 1 Vitamin A deficiency can lead to dry eyes, blindness or dying corneas, also known as Bitot's spots. One of the first signs of deficiency is often an inability to produce tears. 3. Night. When we consume beta-carotene, it (may) convert to vitamin A inside the body, but the conversation rates can be poor and unreliable . In contrast, retinol, found in animal foods, is pre-formed vitamin A in its active state, meaning that the body can use it without relying on any conversion

With the beta carotene studies, it was the discordance between all the evidence that came before the clinical trials and what the clinical trials found that shocked the scientists Beta-carotene found in carrots and other fruits and veggies can be converted to retinol which is a pre-cursor to vitamin A which is important for maintaining eye health. For some of these foods.

Vitamin A can also be derived from certain carotenoid antioxidants found in plants. They are collectively known as provitamin A. The most efficient of these is beta-carotene, which is abundant in. For example, carrots produce beta carotene, which the body turns into vitamin A; minerals, such as iron and copper, can be found in soil and rock. Vitamins are much more delicate than minerals and can break down with heat or age, and they are organic; minerals are inorganic, making their chemical form more simple than that of vitamins Can I use olive oil on face everyday? Olive oil is often used as an ingredient in face wash products. There are cosmetics that have olive oil bases. It can also be found in some soaps, body washes, and lotions. It's possible to use olive oil as a moisturizer without any added ingredients by applying it directly onto your skin

Beta-carotene, a substance that gives veggies like carrots and yams their orange hue, is an important substance that your body uses to make vitamin A.And if you're eating sweet potatoes in large. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs in the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body as you breathe in. They release carbon dioxide, a waste product of the body's cells, as you breathe out.Each lung has sections called lobes.The left lung has two lobes

Although the body cannot produce vitamin A from scratch, it can convert some from carotenoids, a group of some 600 chemicals that are related to retinol. Beta-carotene and lycopene are the best-known examples of these antioxidants, which are found only in plants. About 8% of the beta-carotene in the diet is converted to vitamin A in the body The researchers looked at four groups of vitamins and other phytochemicals - including vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene — in 25 varieties of microgreens. They found that leaves from almost all of the microgreens had four to six times more nutrients than the mature leaves of the same plant

Quiz 4 (Chapter 6, 7, and 8) Flashcards Quizle

The second form, pro-vitamin A, is primarily obtained from the beta-carotene found in colorful fruits and vegetables, which your body then converts into vitamin A. Beta-carotene functions as an antioxidant, thereby shielding cells against free radical damage and protecting you against inflammation and the issues that can manifest in the wake of. The Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial: incidence of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality during 6-year follow-up after stopping beta-carotene and retinol supplements. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2004;96(23):1743-1750 Again, we do not use straight vitamin A in Premium Insurance Caps (or any of our products), but instead use beta-carotene. 7-14 capsules of Premium Insurance Caps contain 12,500 - 25,000 IU of beta-carotene, which is the suggested Optimal Daily Intake (ODI). This amount, and perhaps even higher amounts, is fine because our body uses beta. Where are water soluble vitamins stored in the body quizlet? Stored in the Small intestine, hydrophilic (absorbed in the gut), Absorbed in the blood, not generally stored in the body, not generally build up and become toxic, and need to be consumed daily. Carrots contain lots of beta carotene and Vitamin A, which can contribute to your eyes. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble nutrient that plays a vital role in your body. This article discusses vitamin A, including its benefits, food sources, as well as effects of deficiency and toxicity

ch 30 Flashcards Quizle

They are found in fruits, vegetables, grains, beans, and other plants. Some of these phytochemicals are believed to protect cells from damage that could lead to cancer. Some scientists think that you could reduce your cancer risk by as much as 40% by eating more vegetables, fruits, and other plant foods that have certain phytochemicals in them Vitamin A is key for good vision, a healthy immune system, and cell growth. There are two types of vitamin A. This entry is primarily about the active form of vitamin A -- retinoids -- that comes. Eating a banana daily is likely to boost eye health and prevent vision-related diseases, a study has found. Researchers have found that bananas have carotenoid — a compound that turn fruits and vegetables red, orange or yellow and are converted into vitamin A, important precursors for eye health — in the liver Dietary fats can also increase the bioavailability of compounds known as phytochemicals—non-essential plant compounds considered beneficial to human health. Many phytochemicals are fat-soluble, such as lycopene found in tomatoes and beta-carotene found in carrots, so dietary fat improves the absorption of these molecules in the digestive tract

Nutrition Flashcards Quizle

  1. Zinc is a nutrient that people need to stay healthy. Zinc is found in cells throughout the body. It helps the immune system fight off invading bacteria and viruses. The body also needs zinc to make proteins and DNA, the genetic material in all cells. During pregnancy, infancy, and childhood, the body needs zinc to grow and develop properly
  2. Processed foods. Foods from either of the two previous groups that have added salt, sugar, or fats. Some canned fruits and vegetables, some cheeses, freshly made bread, and canned fish are examples. These foods usually are made from at least 2-3 ingredients and can be readily eaten without further preparation
  3. can be inhibited in cells or organisms by the technique of RNA interference (RNAi) which can prevent mRNA from being translated into protein genes can be deleted or modified with high specificity by the CRISPR system which uses guide mRNA to promote DNA cleavage at a specific nucleotide sequence in the genom
  4. Discover the Best Online Product Comparison Site now. We make Shopping Online Easy and Fun. Find and Compare the best Products from Leading Brands and Retailers at ProductShopper no
  5. A by including good sources of beta-carotene in your diet, as the body can convert this into retinol. The main food sources of beta-carotene are: yellow, red and green (leafy) vegetables, such as spinach, carrots, sweet potatoes and red pepper
  6. A Golden Rice can be as effective as milk, eggs or butter. Only 40 grams consumed daily is expected to prevent death and blindness, with no possibility of overdosing, as the human body only converts the beta-carotene it needs to vita
  7. A. Mild forms of vita

Chapter 7 Questions pt 3 Flashcards Quizle

Describe how the functional units for beta carotene, xanthophyll, chlorophyll A, and chlorophyll B are different. Be sure to identify the subunits that adhere to paper during chromatography The beta-carotene that is found in carrots was actually named for the carrot itself! Even though U.S. consumers are most familiar with carrots as root vegetables bright orange in color, an amazing variety of colors are found worldwide for this vegetable. Here is a short list of some of the more popular carrot varieties, categorized by color

HN 400 FINAL EXAM Flashcards Quizle

Sources Retinol - Cod liver oil, Liver, Dairy products, Herrings, Egg yolk Beta-Carotene Dark green leafy vegetables, Broccoli, Carrots, Deep orange fruits and vegetables 7 The power and goodness of carrots - Carrots have many important vitamins and minerals.. They are rich in antioxidants Beta Carotene, Alpha Carotene, Phytochemicals and Glutath ione, Calcium and Potassium, and vitamins A, B1, B2, C, and E, which are also considered antioxidants, protecting as well as nourishing the skin. They contain a form of calcium easily absorbed by the body

They also contain the antioxidants beta-carotene and lutein, which may reduce the risk of eye disorders, such as macular degeneration and cataracts (20, 21). Beet greens can be added to salads. These can help keep your immune system strong. Antioxidants -- which include beta carotene and vitamins C and E -- are essential nutrients and can help keep your immune system strong. They help. Vitamin K is found in green leafy vegetables like spinach, turnips, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, soy beans, and some percentage through milk. Our body is the best source to produce this vitamin through the gut bacteria, but most of the times it gets partially stored in the liver and partially absorbed beta-carotene B. vitamin C C. vitamin E D. biotin ANS: D REF: 230 22. Folate can be found in the highest levels in which of the following foods? A. asparagus B. beans C. meat D. oranges ANS: A REF: 255 23. Naturally occurring vitamin B 12 is found in which food? A. cantaloupe B. oranges C. eggs ANS: C REF: 264 D! All these answers are correct. 24

what is the UL for vitamin E quizlet? Vitamin E is the least toxic. UL = 1,000 mg of alpha-tocopherol (1,500 IU of natural RRR alpha-tocopherol or 1100 IU of synthetic all-rac tocopherol)/day. One may also ask, what is a function of vitamin E quizlet? How does vitamin E act as a lipophilic antioxidant? It terminates free radicals and destroys. High doses of beta carotene have been linked to a greater risk of lung cancer in smokers. Extra calcium and vitamin D may increase the risk of kidney stones. High doses of vitamin E may lead to stroke caused by bleeding in the brain. Vitamin K can interfere with the anti-clotting effects of blood thinners

Chapter 9 Fat soluble vitamins Flashcards Quizle

  1. Beta-carotene may help lower the risk of metabolic syndrome, at least in middle-age and elderly men, a study published in the Journal of Nutrition found. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by.
  2. For the nutrients with DVs that are going up, the %DVs may go down. For example, the DV for total fat has been updated from 65g to 78g. That means that a packaged food with 36g of total fat in one.
  3. that your cells and tissues use for many essential functions, vita
  4. foods which appeared on the most nutritious foods lists. Asparagus. High in Vita

Beta Carotene: Benefits, Foods to Eat, and Mor

A 2013 analysis found that high doses of beta-carotene or vitamin E significantly increased the risk of dying. A few studies have found benefits associated with antioxidant use, but the results. The new type of rice was able to produce beta-carotene, which human body can convert to vitamin A, thus addressing the nutritional needs of over half the population on the planet that depend on. However, when it comes to heart health, certain studies have found that using vitamin E or beta-carotene supplements should be actively discouraged because of the increase in the risk of heart-related mortality, so be careful when it comes to vitamin E or carotene supplementation. 5. May Help Reduce Risk of Cance

Video: What is beta carotene? What are the benefits

Why do leaves turn color in fall quizlet? - Mvorganizing

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) or hypovitaminosis A is a lack of vitamin A in blood and tissues. It is common in poorer countries, especially among children and women of reproductive age, but is rarely seen in more developed countries. Nyctalopia (night blindness) is one of the first signs of VAD. Xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, and complete blindness can also occur since vitamin A has a major role. Beta-carotene, Beta-carotene is a fat soluble member of the carotenoids which are considered provitamins because they can be converted to active vitamin A. Beta-carotene is converted to retinol, which is essential for vision. It is a strong antioxidant and is the best quencher of singlet oxygen Vitamin E. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with several forms, but alpha-tocopherol is the only one used by the human body. Its main role is to act as an antioxidant, scavenging loose electrons—so-called free radicals—that can damage cells. [1] It also enhances immune function and prevents clots from forming in heart arteries vitamin E. beta-carotene. lycopene. lutein. selenium. manganese. zeaxanthin. Flavonoids, flavones, catechins, polyphenols, and phytoestrogens are all types of antioxidants and phytonutrients, and.

Top 10 Foods Highest in Beta Carotene - myfooddat

It is found in animal products such as milk and eggs. If you follow a strict vegetarian or vegan diet, or you've had gastric bypass surgery, your breast milk will most likely be deficient in vitamin B12.   You can correct the deficiency and increase the levels of B12 in your breast milk by taking a supplement A vitamin that can dissolve in fats and oils. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed along with fats in the diet and can be stored in the body's fatty tissue. They come from plant and animal foods or dietary supplements. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble. What is the difference between water soluble and fat soluble vitamins quizlet Background. The free radical theory of aging was conceived by Denham Harman in the 1950s, when prevailing scientific opinion held that free radicals were too unstable to exist in biological systems. This was also before anyone invoked free radicals as a cause of degenerative diseases. Two sources inspired Harman: 1) the rate of living theory, which holds that lifespan is an inverse function of. CoQ10 can be taken at the same time as statin medication. However, regular CoQ10 is fat-soluble, so it is best absorbed with foods that contain fats. If you typically take your statin medication at night and want to take CoQ10 at the same time , be aware that taking CoQ10 at bedtime may cause insomnia in some people Jaundice itself requires no treatment in adults (unlike in newborns—see Hyperbilirubinemia ). Usually, itching gradually disappears as the liver's condition improves. If itching is bothersome, taking cholestyramine by mouth may help. However, cholestyramine is ineffective when a bile duct is completely blocked

The B-Carotene Molecule - Chemical and Physical Propertie

Beta carotene Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll a Figure 1 below shows the absorbance spectrum for each of the pigments extracted from the extract from fresh greens. The chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b are green in color and the spectrum shows that they absorb violet- blue and red colors, but reflect green. Beta carotene is orange, and its graph. It is found in animal liver, whole milk, and some fortified foods. Carotenoids: Carotenoids are dark-colored dyes (pigments). They are found in plant foods that can turn into active form of vitamin A. There are more than 500 known carotenoids. One such carotenoid is beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant The pigment beta carotene, found in green algae, is used as a food coloring. Carotene also has been shown to be very effective in preventing some cancers, including lung cancer. Researchers announced in January 2009 that green algae could play a role in reducing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. As sea ice melts, iron is introduced to the ocean What is the capacity of long-term memory group of answer choices? Long-term memory is usually defined in contrast to short-term memory. Short-term memories last only for about 18-30 seconds while long-term memories may last for months or years, or even decades

Deciding what foods to buy was simpler when most food came from farms. Now, factory-made foods have made chemical additives a significant part of our diet.In general, it's best to avoid the following ingredients.Artificial sweeteners: Aspartame, Acesulfame K, Saccharin, SucraloseFood dyesPartially hydrogenated oils (trans fat)And don't forget to cut back on sugar and salt Specific molecules include beta-carotene and lycopene (both carotenes), along with zeaxanthin and lutein (both xanthophylls) (2,3). They're all antioxidants and can have various other roles in the body as well. The site LiveScience offers more details about individual classes of carotenoids and their implications Beta carotene can block the growth of potentially cancerous cells. The recommended cancer prevention dose of beta carotene is 15 to 25 mg. per day (around 30,000 IU). This is about ten times the amount in the average American diet, but it's actually easy to get enough beta carotene in your diet without taking supplements The body can make all the vitamin A it needs from these plant-derived carotenoids. They are water-soluble and do not accumulate in the body, so toxicity is rare. More than 500 carotenoids have been identified; fewer than 10 percent can be made into vitamin A in the body